Tooth Decay Causes and Treatment Methods

Tooth decay is a dental disease. Studies show that among adults aged 20 and older, about 90% have had at least one cavity. 1 in 4 adults aged 20 to 64 currently has at least one cavity. Thus, we may call it one of the most common dental diseases in the world.

Tooth decay may affect individuals of all ages. It poses threat to oral cavity. Thus, we need to be informed to be protected from it. In this article, we explore the causes of it,discuss preventive measures, and highlight the various treatment methods available to address this common dental disease.

At the early stages, tooth decay normally may not be identified without a special equipment that is used in highly equipped dental clinic in Tbilisi. However, once it progresses – it may be looking as white spot / yellowish / black, it may cause pain, various inflammation in oral cavity. Typically, dentists categorize the progression rates of dental plaque as “mild dental plaque,” “moderate dental plaque,” or “severe dental plaque.”

Tooth Decay Causes

Tooth decay, a.k.a. dental caries, a.k.a. cavities, occurs as the result of acids eroding the tooth enamel. This acid is produced by accumulated plaque. Dental plaque is a sticky substance of bacteria and fungi made from leftover food particles and saliva that are mixed in the oral cavity. As the result, those microparticles / microorganisms stick between each other and the tooth surface.

Several steps of plaque formation:

1. Bacteria binds to the pellicle (It is protein film that is formed in seconds after a tooth is cleaned, or after chewing);
2. Bacteria starts multiplication;
3. Microcolonies of bacteria are formed, creating streptococci layer;
4. Creation of complex bacterial group with metabolic structure;
5. Growth of the group.

It is noteworthy that sucrose (sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits) or in other words – sugar – is the only sugar that bacteria can use to form sticky polysaccharide allowing it to cohere, forming dental plaque.

All these may sound like a Hollywood fiction movie, but it is a real microworld that stops you progress towards Hollywood smile!

Contributing factors to tooth decay:

1. poor oral hygiene practices;
2. frequent consumption of sugary or acidic foods and beverages;
3. certain medical conditions or medications;
4. genetic factors.

Early signs of tooth decay may include white spots on the teeth, tooth sensitivity, and localized pain or discomfort.

Prevention of Tooth Decay

As we have mentioned the causes of tooth decay, in order to minimize its risks we need to control what remains under our control:

• avoidance of sugary and acid foods and beverages;
• high level of hygiene maintenance (regular and thorough brushing of teeth from different angles)
• regular dental consultations and professional teeth cleanings enable early detection of this disease and allow for timely intervention.

Treatment of Tooth Decay

Dental Fillings

For mild to moderate cases of tooth decay, tooth fillings are a common solution. During dental filling, the decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the cavity is filled with special material. Such filling material might be normally either dental amalgam fillings, composite resin fillings, glass ionomer cement fillings, indirect fillings, such as caps. Filling materials’ chemical structure varies from brand to brand, and the quality of filling vary respectively. In our clinic we use only premium dental fillings, in accordance with respective guidelines and protocols.

Root Canal Treatment

In cases where the disease has reached deeper layer of the tooth, known as the pulp,pulpitis might occur and root canal treatment may be necessary. This procedure consists of removing the infected or damaged pulp tissue, disinfection of the root canals, and sealing of the tooth.

Dental Crowns

In instances of extensive tooth decay or after root canal treatment, an artificial crown may be placed over the affected tooth to restore its strength, shape, and function.

Tooth Extraction

In severe cases of tooth decay where the tooth cannot be saved, extraction may be necessary to prevent the spread of infection to surrounding teeth and tissues.


To sum up, tooth decay is a common yet partially preventable dental problem that can have serious consequences if left untreated. By adopting good oral hygiene practices, making healthy dietary choices, and seeking timely dental care, individuals can effectively combat this disease and maintain optimal oral health. Richter’s Clinic is here, both, for prevention of the tooth decay via timely check-up, professional teeth cleanings service and for teeth filling / installation of dental crown / tooth extraction services when you already are struggling with existing tooth decay.